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More clashes in Southern Sudan

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2 March 2011
Last updated at 11:06 ET

Dozens of people have died in clashes between Southern Sudan’s army and George Athor’s rebels, officials say.

The fighting began on Sunday in Fangak county, the same area where more than 200 people were killed last month.

Mr Athor defected from the army last year, alleging fraud in state elections, though his group signed a ceasefire agreement in January.

The violence has raised concerns about the stability of a state born only last month in an independence referendum.

George Athor claims 110 people were killed in the latest round of fighting, most of them army soldiers.

The southern army spokesman Col Philip Aguer said Mr Athor’s death toll was exaggerated, and that the deaths were something to mourn, not something to be proud of.

Col Aguer estimated the number killed at around 40, although he said details were still sketchy.

Our correspondent in the southern capital, Juba, Peter Martell, says the battles are localised and are very unlikely to affect the rest of the south, but it is one more sign of the challenges the south faces to improve security and bring its people together.

Mr Athor told Reuters news agency he was ready to return to negotiations with the southern leadership.

“I am really worried because the new country will be like a baby born dead,” he was quoted as saying. “If you start with a guerrilla force fighting the government, I don’t see any development that can happen.”

Col Aguer reportedly said the rebel leader was “refusing peace, amnesty, and the cease-fire”.

Mr Athor was a senior member of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army during the war against the north. He turned renegade last April, claiming he was cheated out of victory in elections for the post of state governor of Jonglei.

Despite a ceasefire agreement in January, clashes broke out in Jonglei in February. The Southern Sudanese government said some 200 people were killed, most of them civilians, in what they called a “massacre” by Mr Athor’s forces.

Southern officials have accused the rebel leader of taking arms from former civil war enemies in the north, something that Khartoum has denied.

Our correspondent says analysts doubt that Mr Athor would ally himself with the north and think it more likely that he began his rebellion after falling out with senior leaders in the southern government.

Southern Sudan is set to become the world’s newest independent state on 9 July.

Leaders from north and south are holding talks in Ethiopia this week on future economic and political relations between the two countries.

Sudan: A country divided

Satellite image showing geography of Sudan, source: Nasa

The great divide across Sudan is visible even from space, as this Nasa satellite image shows. The northern states are a blanket of desert, broken only by the fertile Nile corridor. Southern Sudan is covered by green swathes of grassland, swamps and tropical forest.

Map showing Ethnicity of Sudan, source:

Sudan’s arid northern regions are home mainly to Arabic-speaking Muslims. But in Southern Sudan there is no dominant culture. The Dinkas and the Nuers are the largest of more than 200 ethnic groups, each with its own traditional beliefs and languages.

Map showing infant Mortality in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

The health inequalities in Sudan are illustrated by infant mortality rates. In Southern Sudan, one in 10 children die before their first birthday. Whereas in the more developed northern states, such as Gezira and White Nile, half of those children would be expected to survive.

Map showing percentage of households using improved water and sanitation in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

The gulf in water resources between north and south is stark. In Khartoum, River Nile, and Gezira states, two-thirds of people have access to piped drinking water and pit latrines. In the south, boreholes and unprotected wells are the main drinking sources. More than 80% of southerners have no toilet facilities whatsoever.

Map showing percentage of who complete primary school education in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

Throughout Sudan, access to primary school education is strongly linked to household earnings. In the poorest parts of the south, less than 1% of children finish primary school. Whereas in the wealthier north, up to 50% of children complete primary level education.

Map showing percentage of households with poor food consumption in Sudan, source: Sudan household health survey 2006

Conflict and poverty are the main causes of food insecurity in Sudan. The residents of war-affected Darfur and Southern Sudan are still greatly dependent on food aid. Far more than in northern states, which tend to be wealthier, more urbanised and less reliant on agriculture.

Map showing position of oilfileds in Sudan, source: Drilling info international

Sudan exports billions of dollars of oil per year. Southern states produce more than 80% of it, but receive only 50% of the revenue, exacerbating tensions with the north. The oil-rich border region of Abyei is to hold a separate vote on whether to join the north or the south.

More clashes in Southern Sudan

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