Covid-19 and Ghana’s election 2020: Prof. Gyampo’s take

Professor Ransford Gyampo
Professor Ransford Gyampo

Ghanaians are currently on a partial lockdown as a result of Covid-19.

Given that some people have honored the Social Distance Protocols in
breach, there is the fear that there may be further spread of the
disease, in a manner that may accentuate calls for and actual total
lockdown. But, should there be a total lockdown, when will we be
certified as free from Covid-19, to warrant our opening?

There are fears, (whether well-founded or illegitimate) that Covid-19
may linger and hence lead to the postponement of election 2020. In some
countries, there are concerns of actual or perceived politically
motivated abuse to be demonstrated, in postponing elections that are yet
to be held.

But in Ghana, it does not appear the ruling party is interested in
abusing the processes and postponing the 2020 elections, just to prolong
its stay in power. Impliedly, Ghana MAY go ahead with the 2020
elections, even if Covid-19 has not been fully contained. Should this be
the case, there are some key issues identified by the International
IDEA, in its recent Technical Paper on Elections and Covid-19 (2020),
that may be considered:

The Issues

  1. We must fully assess the risks and implications of holding the
    2020 elections in the wake of Covid-19. Depending on how hard we may be
    hit by the disease, it may be very difficult to hold the elections. The
    production and distribution of ballot papers and other key election
    materials, can be undermined by the very measures imposed to limit the
    spread of the disease. We must take note also that polling officers may
    be scared of infections or may actually be infected, and hence may not
    perform their critical duties and functions optimally or satisfactorily
    at the polling stations. We must also be aware of the fact that voter
    turnout may likely be affected, because of fear of infection, in a
    manner that may compromise the legitimacy of the elections and
    acceptability of its outcomes. Indeed, in the wake of Social Distance
    Protocols, law-abiding citizens may be unlikely to leave their homes to
    go queue and vote, because of their quest to be careful in not
    contracting the virus. They may actually call their family members to
    also stay away from the polls. Again, the aged, who are highly
    susceptible to the Covid-19 virus, may completely stay away from the
    polling process. This may create uneven participation and skew the
    polling process against the aged segment of the population. Moreover,
    Ghanaians abroad, who are now expected to vote in all elections, under
    the aegis of the ROPAL, may be unable to do so, due to the potential
    restrictions, that may be imposed by their respective host countries.
    The dent of these challenges on the legitimacy of the 2020 election,
    should it be held, is indubitable.
  2. The challenges above, amply
    points to the need to consider some solutions. Given our Social Distance
    Protocols, the International IDEA recommends special voting, that
    allows citizens to remotely cast their votes through postal, internet
    and mobile technology, to reduce the health hazards of voting in person.
    The snag, however, is that, the logistical implications of this
    alternative voting mechanism for Ghana, at the moment, make the proposal
    less feasible. The adoption of alternative methods for voting would
    require swift public education. Unfortunately, “common public education”
    and reception to public learning are quite problematic in Ghana.
    Indeed, recent evidence in enforcing basic partial lockdown rules and
    Social Distance Protocols supports this assertion.
  3. We must
    strive towards achieving inclusivity in decisions, with respect to
    holding the 2020 elections. Government, adhering to the laws of the
    land, must agree with the opposition political parties on the need to go
    on with the elections, snd work closely with public health officials
    and other security and governance experts, to carefully consider the
    health, public safety, security risks, democratic and constitutional
    imperatives and implications of the decision to go ahead with the
    elections. But we must be mindful of the fact that, even though some
    funds may be sourced through loans and donations, holding the 2020
    elections at a time when the virus is still prevalent, may imply a tacit
    acceptance to divert human and material resources, from more urgent
    activities of fighting to contain the Covid-19. This may deepen the
    derogatory, but sometimes deserving terminologies of the people, that
    tend to label politicians as self-seeking, self-perpetuating and
    self-aggrandizing cabals. This may certainly not make the people,
    particularly the undecided floaters, enthused about the elections.

The brief analysis above shows that we are confronted with risks on both sides of one coin. Through elections, the citizenry gets the opportunity to either renew or abrogate their social contract with their elected leaders. The people must have the right to decide whether they want to maintain the current government or kick them out through the 2020 elections. A postponement of the election may amount to the risk of suspending the political rights of the citizenry. This in political theory is almost coterminous with a denial of man’s right to life.

Going on with the elections, also risks several challenges that may
undermine public health and lead to “voting without choosing” as well as
the conduct of an election, whose legitimacy may be in severe doubt.

What we must do as a nation, is to begin to prepare and dialogue around the above issues, even as we fight to contain the Covid-19. We must eschew the needless pettiness of proving and disproving who built which hospital, (when and how), and work together beyond partisanship, to deepen education on compliance with our Social Distance Protocols, among those who still believe the disease is only for the affluent in society.

My very personal inclinations and belief, not backed by any
scientific evidence, suggests to me that, if we are able to discipline
ourselves and ensure total compliance with the Social Distance
Protocols, Covid-19 would not be an issue for Ghana by December 2020.
Hence, we may be able to hold our elections without much issues with
public health and safety.

If so, then, given the timing of our current situation, I dare say
that, there is no longer the need for a debate, as to whether we need a
new voters register or not. The Electoral Commission must work with its
key stakeholders to decide on the modalities to carry out its intention,
in the wake of the spreading of Covid-19.

However, it is plausible to also reason that, Covid-19 constitutes
enough force majeure, that makes a compelling case for abandoning the
intention to compile a new voters’ register.

If the latter is the case, then the Electoral Commission must quickly
think through a contingency plan, to re-psyche and whip up public
confidence in the old register that has been bastardized through the
utterances of Commission itself, and other stakeholders.

Happy Special Easter to all of us. May God bless our homeland Ghana
and help us learn all the lessons of Covid-19, including humility,
respect for common humanity, Social Distance and Personal Hygiene,
throughout the period of our Special Easter, for a quick restoration of
normal socio-economic and political life.

Yaw Gyampo
A31, Prabiw
PAV Ansah Street
Suro Nipa House