The Dutch football federation confirmed on Sunday evening that they had dismissed Danny Blind from his position as manager.
Blind had been under increasing pressure, with the Netherlands facing the real possibility of failing to qualify for the World Cup in 2018 after also missing out on the European Championships.
They are currently fourth in Group A, six points behind leaders France and three behind second-placed Sweden.
The Dutch have lost five of their nine competitive matches under Blind and face crunch matches against Sweden and Bulgaria, the two teams directly above them, in the autumn fixtures.
Assistant coach Fred Grim will take temporary for the friendly against Italy on Tuesday.