Epilepsy; Symptoms, Causes, Complication, Treatment And Drugs, Preventions

Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder) in which the nerve cell activity in your brain is disturbed, causing a seizure during which you experience abnormal behavior, symptoms and sensations, including loss of consciousness. Seizure symptoms vary. Some people with epilepsy simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, while others repeatedly twitch their arms or legs. Even mild seizures may require treatment because they can be dangerous during activities such as driving or swimming. Treatment, which generally includes medications or sometimes surgery, may eliminate or reduce the frequency and intensity of seizures. Some children with epilepsy even outgrow the condition with age.

Symptoms
Because epilepsy is caused by abnormal activity in brain cells, seizures can affect any process your brain coordinates. A seizure can produce symptoms such as:

Temporary confusion

A staring spell

Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs

Loss of consciousness or awareness

Psychic symptoms

Symptoms vary depending on the type of seizure. In most cases, a person with epilepsy will tend to have the same type of seizure each time, so the symptoms will be similar from episode to episode.

Causes
Epilepsy has no identifiable cause in about half of those with the condition. In about half the people with epilepsy, the condition may be traced to various factors.

Genetic influence. Some types of epilepsy, which are categorized by the type of seizure you experience, run in families. In these cases, it’s likely that there’s a genetic influence.

Researchers have linked some types of epilepsy to specific genes, though it’s estimated that up to 500 genes could be tied to the condition. For most people, genes are only part of the cause of epilepsy. Certain genes may make a person more sensitive to environmental conditions that trigger seizures.

Head trauma. Head trauma that occurs due to a car accident or other traumatic injury can cause epilepsy.

Brain conditions. Brain conditions that result in damage to the brain, such as brain tumors or strokes, also can cause epilepsy. Stroke is a leading cause of epilepsy in adults older than age 35.

Infectious diseases. Infectious diseases, such as meningitis, AIDS and viral encephalitis, can cause epilepsy.

Prenatal injury. Before birth, babies are sensitive to brain damage that could be caused by several factors, such as an infection in the mother, poor nutrition or oxygen deficiencies. This brain damage can result in epilepsy or cerebral palsy.

Developmental disorders. Epilepsy can sometimes be associated with developmental disorders, such as autism and neurofibromatosis

Complications
Having a seizure at certain times can lead to circumstances that are dangerous to yourself or others.

Falling. If you fall during a seizure, you can injure your head or break a bone.

Drowning. If you have epilepsy, you’re 15 to 19 times more likely to drown while swimming or bathing than is the rest of the population because of the possibility of having a seizure while in the water.

Car accidents. A seizure that causes either loss of awareness or control can be dangerous if you’re driving a car or operating other equipment.

Pregnancy complications. Seizures during pregnancy pose dangers to both mother and baby, and certain anti-epileptic medications increase the risk of birth defects. If you have epilepsy and you’re considering becoming pregnant, talk to your doctor as you plan your pregnancy.

Emotional health issues. People with epilepsy are more likely to have psychological problems, especially depression, anxiety and, in extreme cases, suicide. Problems may be a result of difficulties from dealing with the condition itself as well as medication side effects.

Other life-threatening complications from epilepsy are uncommon, but do occur.

Status epilepticus. This condition occurs if you’re in a state of continuous seizure activity lasting more than five minutes, or if you have frequent recurrent seizures without regaining full consciousness in between them. People with status epilepticus have an increased risk of permanent brain damage and death.

Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). People with epilepsy also have a small risk of sudden unexplained death. The cause is unknown, but some research shows it may occur due to heart or respiratory conditions.

Treatments And Drugs
Doctors generally begin by treating epilepsy with medication. If medications don’t treat the condition, doctors may propose surgery or another type of treatment.

1. Medication
Most people with epilepsy can become seizure-free by taking one anti-seizure medication, called anti-epileptic medication. Others may be able to decrease the frequency and intensity of their seizures by taking medications. Your doctor will advise you about the appropriate time to stop taking medications.

More than half the children with epilepsy who aren’t experiencing epilepsy symptoms can eventually discontinue medications and live a seizure-free life. Many adults also can discontinue medications after two or more years without seizures.

Finding the right medication and dosage can be complex. Your doctor will consider your condition, frequency of seizures, your age and other factors when choosing which medication to prescribe. Your doctor will also review any other medications you may be taking, to ensure the anti-epileptic medications won’t interact with them.

Your doctor likely will first prescribe a single medication at a relatively low dosage and may increase the dosage gradually until your seizures are well controlled.

Always call your doctor before switching to a generic version of your medication or taking other prescription medications, over-the-counter drugs or herbal remedies.

Never stop taking your medication without talking to your doctor.

Notify your doctor immediately if you notice new or increased feelings of depression, suicidal thoughts, or unusual changes in your mood or behaviors.

Tell your doctor if you have migraines. Doctors may prescribe one of the anti-epileptic medications that can prevent your migraines and treat epilepsy.

At least half of all people newly diagnosed with epilepsy will become seizure-free with their first medication. If anti-epileptic medications don’t provide satisfactory results, your doctor may suggest surgery or other therapies. You’ll have regular follow-up appointments with your doctor to evaluate your condition and medications.

2. Surgery
Surgery is most commonly done when tests show that your seizures originate in a small, well-defined area of your brain that doesn’t interfere with vital functions like speech, language, motor function, vision or hearing. In surgery, your doctor removes the area of your brain that’s causing the seizures.

If your seizures originate in an area of the brain that controls movement, speech and other functions, you may be awake during part of the surgery. Doctors will monitor you and ask you questions during the procedure.

If your seizures originate in a part of your brain that can’t be removed, your doctor may recommend a different type of surgery in which surgeons make several cuts in your brain (multiple subpial transection). These cuts are designed to prevent seizures from spreading to other parts of your brain.

Although many people continue to need some medication to help prevent seizures after successful surgery, you may be able to take fewer drugs and reduce your dosages.

In a small number of cases, surgery for epilepsy can cause complications such as permanently altering your thinking (cognitive) abilities. Talk to your surgeon about his or her experience, success rates and complication rates with the procedure you’re considering.

3. Therapies

Vagus nerve stimulation. In vagus nerve stimulation, doctors implant a device called a vagus nerve stimulator underneath the skin of your chest, similar to a heart pacemaker. Wires from the stimulator are connected to the vagus nerve in your neck.

The battery-powered device sends bursts of electrical energy through the vagus nerve and to your brain. It’s not clear how this inhibits seizures, but the device can usually reduce seizures by 20 to 40 percent.

Most people still need to take anti-epileptic medication, although some people may be able to lower their medication dose. You may experience side effects from vagus nerve stimulation, such as throat pain, hoarse voice, shortness of breath or coughing.

4. Ketogenic diet. Some children with epilepsy have been able to reduce their seizures by following a strict diet that’s high in fats and low in carbohydrates.

In this diet, called a ketogenic diet, the body breaks down fats instead of carbohydrates for energy. After a few years, some children may be able to stop the ketogenic diet and remain seizure-free.

Consult a doctor if you or your child is considering a ketogenic diet. It’s important to make sure that your child doesn’t become malnourished when taking the diet.

Preventions
Understanding your condition can help you control it.

Take your medication correctly. Don’t adjust your dosage levels before talking to your doctor. If you feel your medication should be changed, discuss it with your doctor.

Get enough sleep. Lack of sleep can trigger seizures. Be sure to get adequate rest every night.

Wear a medical alert bracelet. This will help emergency personnel know how to treat you correctly.

Exercise. Exercising may help keep you physically healthy and reduce depression. Make sure to drink enough water and rest if you get tired during exercise.

In addition, make healthy life choices such as managing stress, limiting alcoholic beverages and avoiding cigarettes.

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