Early European Contact and the Slave Trade
When the first Europeans arrived in the late fifteenth century, many inhabitants of the Gold Coast area were striving to consolidate their newly acquired territories and to settle into a secure and permanent environment. Several immigrant groups had yet to establish firm ascendancy over earlier occupants of their territories, and considerable displacement and secondary migrations were in progress. Ivor Wilks, a leading historian of Ghana, observed that Akan purchases of slaves from Portuguese traders operating from the Congo region augmented the labor needed for the state formation that was characteristic of this period. Unlike the Akan groups of the interior, the major coastal groups, such as the Fante, Ewe, and Ga, were for the most part settled in their homelands.
The Portuguese were the first to arrive. By 1471, under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator, they had reached the area that was to become known as the Gold Coast because Europeans knew the area as the source of gold that reached Muslim North Africa by way of trade routes across the Sahara. The initial Portuguese interest in trading for gold, ivory, and pepper so increased that in 1482 the Portuguese built their first permanent trading post on the western coast of present-day Ghana. This fortress, Elmina Castle, constructed to protect Portuguese trade from European competitors and hostile Africans, still stands.
With the opening of European plantations in the New World during the 1500s, which suddenly expanded the demand for slaves in the Americas, trade in slaves soon overshadowed gold as the principal export of the area. Indeed, the west coast of Africa became the principal source of slaves for the New World. The seemingly insatiable market and the substantial profits to be gained from the slave trade attracted adventurers from all over Europe. Much of the conflict that arose among European groups on the coast and among competing African kingdoms was the result of rivalry for control of this trade.
The Portuguese position on the Gold Coast remained secure for almost a century. During that time, Lisbon leased the right to establish trading posts to individuals or companies that sought to align themselves with the local chiefs and to exchange trade goods both for rights to conduct commerce and for slaves whom the chiefs could provide. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, adventurers–first Dutch, and later English, Danish, and Swedish– were granted licenses by their governments to trade overseas. On the Gold Coast, these European competitors built fortified trading stations and challenged the Portuguese. Sometimes they were also drawn into conflicts with local inhabitants as Europeans developed commercial alliances with local chiefs.
The principal early struggle was between the Dutch and the Portuguese. With the loss of Elmina in 1642 to the Dutch, the Portuguese left the Gold Coast permanently. The next 150 years saw kaleidoscopic change and uncertainty, marked by local conflicts and diplomatic maneuvers, during which various European powers struggled to establish or to maintain a position of dominance in the profitable trade of the Gold Coast littoral. Forts were built, abandoned, attacked, captured, sold, and exchanged, and many sites were selected at one time or another for fortified positions by contending European nations.
Both the Dutch and the British formed companies to advance their African ventures and to protect their coastal establishments. The Dutch West India Company operated throughout most of the eighteenth century. The British African Company of Merchants, founded in 1750, was the successor to several earlier organizations of this type. These enterprises built and manned new installations as the companies pursued their trading activities and defended their respective jurisdictions with varying degrees of government backing. There were short-lived ventures by the Swedes and the Prussians. The Danes remained until 1850, when they withdrew from the Gold Coast. The British gained possession of all Dutch coastal forts by the last quarter of the nineteenth century, thus making them the dominant European power on the Gold Coast.
During the heyday of early European competition, slavery was an accepted social institution, and the slave trade overshadowed all other commercial activities on the West African coast. To be sure, slavery and slave trading were already firmly entrenched in many African societies before their contact with Europe. In most situations, men as well as women captured in local warfare became slaves. In general, however, slaves in African communities were often treated as junior members of the society with specific rights, and many were ultimately absorbed into their masters’ families as full members. Given traditional methods of agricultural production in Africa, slavery in Africa was quite different from that which existed in the commercial plantation environments of the New World.
Another aspect of the impact of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on Africa concerns the role of African chiefs, Muslim traders, and merchant princes in the trade. Although there is no doubt that local rulers in West Africa engaged in slaving and received certain advantages from it, some scholars have challenged the premise that traditional chiefs in the vicinity of the Gold Coast engaged in wars of expansion for the sole purpose of acquiring slaves for the export market. In the case of Asante, for example, rulers of that kingdom are known to have supplied slaves to both Muslim traders in the north and to Europeans on the coast. Even so, the Asante waged war for purposes other than simply to secure slaves. They also fought to pacify territories that in theory were under Asante control, to exact tribute payments from subordinate kingdoms, and to secure access to trade routes–particularly those that connected the interior with the coast.
It is important to mention, however, that the supply of slaves to the Gold Coast was entirely in African hands. Although powerful traditional chiefs, such as the rulers of Asante, Fante, and Ahanta, were known to have engaged in the slave trade, individual African merchants such as John Kabes, John Konny, Thomas Ewusi, and a broker known only as Noi commanded large bands of armed men, many of them slaves, and engaged in various forms of commercial activities with the Europeans on the coast.
The volume of the slave trade in West Africa grew rapidly from its inception around 1500 to its peak in the eighteenth century. Philip Curtin, a leading authority on the African slave trade, estimates that roughly 6.3 million slaves were shipped from West Africa to North America and South America, about 4.5 million of that number between 1701 and 1810. Perhaps 5,000 a year were shipped from the Gold Coast alone. The demographic impact of the slave trade on West Africa was probably substantially greater than the number actually enslaved because a significant number of Africans perished during slaving raids or while in captivity awaiting transshipment. All nations with an interest in West Africa participated in the slave trade. Relations between the Europeans and the local populations were often strained, and distrust led to frequent clashes. Disease caused high losses among the Europeans engaged in the slave trade, but the profits realized from the trade continued to attract them.
The growth of anti-slavery sentiment among Europeans made slow progress against vested African and European interests that were reaping profits from the traffic. Although individual clergymen condemned the slave trade as early as the seventeenth century, major Christian denominations did little to further early efforts at abolition. The Quakers, however, publicly declared themselves against slavery as early as 1727. Later in
the century, the Danes stopped trading in slaves; Sweden and the Netherlands soon followed.
The importation of slaves into the United States was outlawed in 1807. In the same year, Britain used its naval power and its diplomatic muscle to outlaw trade in slaves by its citizens and to begin a campaign to stop the international trade in slaves. These efforts, however, were not successful until the 1860s because of the continued demand for plantation labor in the New World.
Because it took decades to end the trade in slaves, some historians doubt that the humanitarian impulse inspired the abolitionist movement. According to historian Walter Rodney, for example, Europe abolished the trans-Atlantic slave trade only because its profitability was undermined by the Industrial Revolution. Rodney argues that mass unemployment caused by the new industrial machinery, the need for new raw materials, and European competition for markets for finished goods are the real factors that brought an end to the trade in human cargo and the beginning of competition for colonial territories in Africa. Other scholars, however, disagree with Rodney, arguing that humanitarian concerns as well as social and economic factors were instrumental in ending the African slave trade.
GHANA’S SLAVING PAST, long regarded as too sensitive to even discuss, is now becoming a lively issue. A group of Ghanaians, led by lawyers and tribal chiefs, have convened an Africa-wide meeting to seek retribution and compensation for the crime of slavery’.
Using the example of recent successes for Jews whose property was confiscated by the Nazis, they cite the misery of millions of African slaves and their descendants, and have called on Western bankers and governments to compensate them by at least lifting the burden of Third World debt. But, as more is discovered about the realities of the tragic trade, some Ghanaians are beginning to wonder how much of the blame for the centuries of slavery should be shared by Africans themselves.
Elmina Castle, the most famous of Ghana’s slaving castles, sits astride a rocky promontory at one end of a palm-fringed bay on the coast of Ghana. It was built by the Portuguese before Columbus discovered America. Indeed, it is thought that Columbus may himself have sailed as a deck-hand on one of the ships in the convoy that carried the building materials for the new castle on what was then known as the Guinea coast.
This great pile of whitewashed walls and battlements, dating from 1482, is the oldest European building in tropical Africa. It is one of about thirty surviving castles, forts and trading posts that still bear witness to four centuries of the presence of Europeans trading in gold, ivory – and slaves.
At the height of the slave trade there were over sixty such strongholds crammed together on a stretch of coast less than 300 miles long. The remains of about thirty can still be seen today. They are one of Ghana’s most distinctive features, a unique collective historical monument.
Elmina is one of the castles that has been rescued from crumbling into the sea, while others, built by the Dutch, Prussians, French and British, are variously used as police stations, prisons, post offices, lighthouses, schools and official residences.
Clearly visible from the ramparts of Elmina is the outline of another great castle in the distance, Cape Coast, built by the Swedes in 1653. Some of these competitive fortresses were almost within cannon-shot of each other. Many changed hands, and, by the end of the nineteenth century, after the abolition of slavery, the British had either conquered or bought out the trading interests of all the other European nations and set up the Gold Coast colony. The Danish-built Fort Osu, dating from 1661, became the British seat of colonial government in 1873, and is today the official home of the president of Ghana.
Lust for gold drew the Portuguese to this part Of West Africa. Alluvial deposits and mines in the hinterland became an important source of raw material for the royal mints in Lisbon. Slaves were needed to work the mines and at first the Portuguese imported them from other areas of Africa. But, in the 16th century they began using slaves caught on the Gold Coast. As the historian Albert van Dantzig points out: Nearly all the forts were built with the consent, sometimes at the urgent request, of the local chiefs and people. The forts were built to keep other European traders away and it was on the side of the sea that they had their strongest defence.’
Elmina’s dominance of the Gold Coast trade lasted until 1637 when the Dutch drove out the Portuguese and expanded their own slave trade. They greatly added to the castle, using bricks and timber brought from Amsterdam, creating a larger courtyard overlooked by a new range of rooms. They turned the late medieval Portuguese church in the courtyard into a slave market.
The merchants and administrators, adherents of the Dutch Reformed Church, had refused to worship where Catholics had prayed before, and built their own chapel in another part of the castle.
Cape Coast Castle and Elmina, both well-preserved and the centre of a burgeoning tourist trade, offer another surprise – streets lined with European houses, public buildings and churches dating from the early nineteenth century, and in some cases from the eighteenth century. But many of the surviving houses are almost derelict, and a wall of one fine merchant’s house in Elmina, decorated with arches and columns, collapsed the night before I went to see it. However, like the castles, historic buildings like these are beginning to attract a trickle of funds to save them. US Aid and Conservation International are helping to fund the restoration of the British Governor’s mansion in Cape Coast, and at Elmina the Americans are supporting the Save Elmina Association’, which offers maintenance grants to owners of historic properties. Excavations by James Anquandah, professor of archaeology at Ghana University, have revealed the influence of castle culture’ on the towns in the shadow of their walls from the earliest times. He reports: We found pencils and slates, even ink bottles still filled with ink, confirming the existence of schools set up by European missionaries. Metal working was one of many trades taught by the Europeans; we found large quantities of brass objects, marking the beginnings of a jewellery trade.’ In Cape Coast Castle, the Smithsonian Institute helped set up a Museum of Slaving which now caters to an increasing number of African Americans – the descendants of slaves who arrive in search of their roots. Visitors weep as they come out of the dungeons at Cape Coast Castle, having seen where hundreds of slaves were kept in gloom and damp before the Atlantic crossing to America or the Caribbean islands. The guides take them along a tunnel to what was known as the gate of no return’. A narrow slit in the castle wall, only wide enough for one at a time, opened onto the sea, the waiting ships, and another ordeal. Another revelation is the process by which the slaves were acquired. Recent research by Dr Akosua Perbi of the University of
Ghana has shown a substantial African involvement in the trade. Typically, after an inter-tribal war, the prisoners taken by the winning side were sold to the castles. Then there were traders arriving at the Gold Coast from the north with slaves. Individuals also kidnapped people to sell them into slavery. Dr Perbi’s research has revealed that some African traders supplied as many as 15,000 slaves per year to European merchants. Several African-Americans who have decided to settle in their ancestral continent live near the castles and take an active interest in their preservation. When tourist authorities opened cafes and bars inside the castles and started to cle
an and whitewash the dungeons, African-Americans staged a sit-in in protest at what they saw as a desecration of a shrine to the tragic crime of slavery. The authorities backed down: the cafes were moved and the paint pots put away.
|1444||first slaves brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania|
|1444-5||Portuguese make a contract with sub Saharan Africa|
|1471||Portuguese arrive in the Gold Coast|
|1482||Portuguese start building Elmina castle in the Gold Coast|
|1488||1488- Bartholomew Diaz goes round the Cape of Good Hope|
|1490||first Portuguese missionaries go to Congo|
|1500||sugar plantations established on the island of Sao Tome two hundred miles form coast of West Africa|
|1510||– first slaves shipped to Spanish colonies in South America via Spain|
|1516||Benin ceases to export male slaves , fearing loss of power|
|1532||first direct shipment of slaves from Africa to the Americans|
|1780’s||slave trade at its peak|
|1652||Dutch establish colony at Cape of Good Hope, South Africa|
|1700||Ashanti begin to consolidate power|
|1720′||Kingdom of Dohomey expands|
|1776- 1783||– American war of independence|
|1787||– Thoughts and sentiments on the Evil of Slavery by Quobna Ottobah Cugoana published by the foundation of the Society for the Abolition Of Slave Trade|
|1789||French Revolution. ‘Life of Olaudah Equiano’ published|
|1791||Slave uprising in Haiti ( Sint Domingue) led by Toussaint L’Ouverture|
|1804||Danes pass a law against slave trade Haitian independence|
|1807||British Law passed declaring buying, selling and transporting slaves (ownership continues)|
|1814||Dutch outlaw slave trade|
|1823||founding of Anti-slavery Committee London|
|1834||– British law passed declaring ownership of slaves illegal|
|1839||Amistad slave ship rebellion|
|1848||French abolish slavery|
|1860-65||American Civil War|
|1895- 13th||Amendment abolishes slavery in America|
|1869||Portugal abolishes slavery|
|1886||slavery abolished in Cuba|
|1888||slavery abolished in Brazil|
|1873||slave market in Zanzibar closed|
|1936||slavery made illegal in Northern Nigeria|