The supreme guide of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, Mohammed Badie, is due to appear in court with more than 680 others charged with incitement to kill.
Tuesday’s mass trial comes a day after an Egyptian court sentenced 528 supporters of ousted Islamist President Mohammed Morsi to death.
They were convicted on charges including murdering a policeman and attacks on people and property.
Egyptian authorities have cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood.
Hundreds have been killed and thousands arrested.
Mohammed Badie was seized along with other Muslim Brotherhood figures after the Egyptian army ousted Mr Morsi last July.
The army stepped in after months of street protests against Mr Morsi – Egypt’s first democratically elected leader.
Mr Badie and others face charges of inciting violence and murder over the deaths of eight anti-Brotherhood protesters outside the movement’s headquarters in Cairo last year.
Following Mr Morsi’s removal from office the Brotherhood set up protest camps in Cairo, at which Mr Badie was a prominent figure.
Police eventually dispersed the camps, killing hundreds of protesters, and Mr Badie went into hiding. He was detained in August.
Mr Badie’s 38-year-old son Ammar was among those killed in the protests.
Meanwhile, the Muslim Brotherhood has denounced Monday’s death sentences.
The verdicts must now go to Egypt’s supreme religious authority, the Grand Mufti, for approval or rejection.
Analysts say that although death sentences are often handed down in Egypt, few have been carried out in recent years.
All of those convicted on Monday are expected to appeal.
Tuesday’s trial will take place at the same court in Minya, south of the capital, Cairo.
The Brotherhood has been declared a terrorist organisation and authorities have punished any public show of support for it.